Category: Article

Lightning Strikes Stationary Truck


Lightning Strikes Stationary Truck

A large rear dump truck (RDT) was struck by lightning while stationary and unattended.
No employees or personnel were injured.

Three tyres were blown off the truck between 2 to 5 minutes after the lightning strike.
Two tyres exploded (position 1 and 3 tyres) on the driver’s side of the truck, sending debris several hundred metres from the vehicle and causing extensive damage to the truck and other equipment.
One complete wheel base (weighing 1.6 tonnes) was thrown about 100 metres from the truck. A solid wheel flange (weighing 250kg) was thrown to the top of the stockpile about 275 metres from the truck.
The air blast and shock wave caused damage to the operator’s cabin, other equipment and buildings up to 230 metres from the truck.
The tyres were ejected and finished between 50 to 60 metres from the truck.

Damage to the truck
1. The truck operator’s rear cabin window was blown into the cabin and all other windows were blown outwards from the cabin. The driver’s door was blown open.
2. The final drive was extensively damaged. The rear outer position 3 wheel base exploded off the final drive breaking 57 one-inch grade 10.9 bolts in tension with a calculated force of approximately 270 kNewtons. The final drive outer planetary carrier and axle were blown off the truck.
3. Position 1 tyre (new tyre) had one complete side wall blown out.
4. Position 3 tyre had the side wall blown out for three-quarters of the circumference.
5. Position 4 tyre was inspected with no visual damage. This tyre was scrapped due to oil contamination inside the tyre.
6. The engine sump was cracked and damaged. The oil cooler was damaged.
7. The front position 1 wheel strut mounting was distorted, and the front wheel hub was bent.
8. Fuel tank mountings were significantly damaged.
9. The three wheel bases were damaged and scrapped.

Other damage
The operator’s cabin windscreen of a water truck parked 20 metres from the RDT was blown out.
A window of a car parked in the employee car park was broken.
Some washery office windows were broken by the shock wave, and damage was caused to some sheeting on the outside of the elevator building.
Some bath house windows were broken.
Five windows in the main office were also broken.

Immediate action taken
The site Tyre Fire Procedure was put into place:
1. Area barricaded as a no-go zone.
2. Incident reported to the NSW DPI Mine Safety inspectorate.
3. No-go zone in place for minimum of 24 hours then to be reassessed.

Position 1 tyre (driver’s side front) showed evidence of earthing through this tyre, and it’s believed the lightning earthed through No 1 and No 3 position tyres.

Further action:
All tyres have been sent to the manufacturer for further inspection.
Review the risk assessment of the mine’s response when thunder storms are approaching and if equipment is struck by lightning.
Attempt to determine the energy released by the exploding tyres and the lightning strike.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

All mines should be aware of potential risks associated with mobile plant in electrical storms.
Consideration should be given to the following:-
1. Distance and time of exclusion zone from a suspect heating tyre.
2. Park-up procedures and locations around buildings.
3. Develop a Lightning Management Plan.
4. Review existing emergency procedures.
5. Review AS 1768 – 2007 Lightning protection.
6. Review NSW Department of Primary Industries Safety Alert SA04-01.

NOTE: Please ensure all relevant people in your organisation receive a copy of this Safety Alert, and are informed of its content and recommendations. This Safety Alert should be processed in a systematic manner through the mine’s information and communication process. It should also be placed on the mine’s notice board.

Rob Regan

Article courtesy of erico

When Lightning Strikes

New Picture

New Picture

Article courtesy oferico

A Six Point Protection Approach For Lightning Protection, Surge Protection And Single Point Grounding For Low Voltage Facilities


D.W. Edwards and P.M. Wherrett

ERICO Lightning Technologies Pty Ltd


High energy over-current and over-voltage transients induced by direct lightning strikes or conducted into a site by power and telecommunication lines cause millions of dollars damage each year. Whilst no single technology can prevent damage, a six point protection approach provides a comprehensive check list covering all damage mechanisms. Commencing with effective means to capture, conduct and then safely dissipate the energy in direct lightning strikes to ground, the plan continues with clamping and diverting transients arriving at the site via external cables.

The importance of capturing the direct lightning strike on a purpose designed air terminal is explained. Lightning currents (up to 200 kA) can then be conducted directly to ground via purpose designed down conductors, while minimising the dangers of “side flash”. In addition to surge protection and transient product technologies, the need to provide a low impedance ground plane throughout the site is emphasised. A single point ground connection for all equipment within a facility is recommended. This reduces the likelihood of earth loops or “sneak” potential gradients induced by the high frequency, high dI/dt and dV/dt transients.

Transient protection technologies for equipment connected to mains power are discussed. Communications equipment, data processing and signal equipment has additional protection requirements.



Lightning and over-voltage transients cause millions of dollars damage to low voltage installations each year. Damage to equipment in the US alone was estimated to US$1.2 billion annually, before including the loss of productivity from industrial and business downtime.

High energy over-voltage transients may be derived from direct lightning strikes to building structures or they may be conducted on power and telephone cables entering buildings and facilities. Induced transient over-voltages may also originate from near strikes due to capacitive or inductive coupling.

  • Peak currents can exceed 200 kA with 10/350 μs waveshape (I.E.C. 1024-1).
  • Current rise times vary between 0.1 – 100 μs.
  • Multipulse surges are experienced in over 70 per cent of direct strike situations. This is a naturally occurring phenomenon where up to 20 restrikes may follow the path of the main discharge at intervals of 10-200 milliseconds.
  • Continuing currents of 200-500A lasting 1-2 seconds may also occur.


There is no single technology that can eliminate the risk of lightning and its transients. A holistic systems approach is required. From over 20 years experience in examining the nature and extent of damage created by lightning transients, ERICO Lightning Technologies has developed a comprehensive Six Point Plan to minimise exposure to damage.

The Six Point Plan recommends

1. Capture the direct lightning strike at a preferred point on purpose-designed air terminals;

2. Conduct the lightning current to ground safely via a purpose-designed downconductor system to minimise the dangers of side-flashing;

3. Dissipate the energy into the ground with minimal rise in ground potential through a low impedance grounding system;

4. Eliminate earth loops and differentials by creating an equipotential grounding plane under transient conditions;

5. Protect equipment from surges and transients on power lines; and

6. Protect equipment from surges and transients on communications and signal lines to prevent equipment damage and costly operational downtime.

Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of comprehensive lightning and surge protection for a typical low voltage facility.

2.1 – Point 1: Capture the lightning strike

The first point of the Six Point Plan involves capturing the lightning strike to a preferred point on purpose-designed air terminals.

In general, the most vulnerable point to direct strike is located at the highest point or corner of a structure where some electric field intensification will occur under storm conditions. Satellite or microwave dishes and communications antenna systems and their control equipment are typically vulnerable to direct strikes.

By correctly installing a purpose-designed air terminal on the top of the structure, direct lightning strikes can be attracted to a preferred point which is away from antennae and cabling to minimise the risk of damage to equipment from the direct force and energy of a lightning discharge.

The patented Dynasphere is an effective air terminal which intercepts lightning discharges at a preferred point earlier than conventional lightning protection techniques. This air terminal was developed from research into the formation of corona and space charge effects around grounded points during the millisecond time-frame prior to the development of lightning upward streamers.

The Dynasphere’s floating sphere construction is passive on approach of a storm, and produces minimal corona.

In the milliseconds prior to the approach of a lightning down leader it becomes active through capacitive coupling, it absorbs energy and assists in triggering an upward intercepting discharge to capture and control the main downleader.

Lightning can then be drawn to the downconductor system to enable the safe transfer of energy to ground.

Figure 1

2.2 – Point 2: Conduct the lightning current to ground safely

Once the lightning has been captured at a preferred point, it is necessary to convey the discharge current safely to ground, and to minimise the conduction of lightning currents on ancillary conductors such as coaxial feeder cables as these can carry dangerous lightning energy directly to equipment racks.

ERICO has developed a purpose-designed, screened, downconductor cable to reduce the risk of “sideflashing and to contain the discharge to a central core conductor during a strike. In a radio base situation, this purpose-designed downconductor has the ability to reduce risks associated with conducted currents entering equipment rooms via RF feeder cables.

2.3 – Points 3 and 4: Dissipate the energy into the ground and eliminate ground loops and differentials

Once the energy is conducted to ground level, a low impedance ground is essential to dissipate the lightning energy into the earth mass as effectively as possible. The grounding systems for dedicated lightning protection terminals, tower footings and electronic equipment rooms or control centres are critical design elements.

Attributes of an ideal grounding arrangement are considered in Figures 2 and 3 and below: ·

  • Each grounding system (lightning, electrical, communications, and equipment room) must be individually of high integrity, as well as being considered a component of an overall grounding network. Where separate grounds exist, they should be bonded together (especially under transient conditions). Bonding of all grounding systems is required by Code in the US. ·
  • Because lightning is a high frequency event, it is the high frequency “impedance” that is the critical design element, not the D.C. resistance. ·
  • A ground ring should surround sensitive electronic equipment rooms, industrial plants and telecom facilities. This will reduce the risk of potential gradients across the facility. ·
  • The lightning protection ground should be directly bonded to the facility ground ring. ·
  • There should be a “single” point connection to the ground network from all equipment within a facility. Figure 2 shows an example of a welldesigned grounding system with a “single” point connection of mains power and communications equipment ground wires to the ground ring. If a surge arrives at the facility via the mains power supply, the surge protection equipment will divert excessive energy to ground, and the telecommunications and lightning protection grounds will rise equipotentially with all other grounding / ground points as they are closely bonded together. There is therefore little opportunity for potential differences between ground points creating earth loops, or causing sparking or sideflashing.

Figure 2

Figure 3 case shows a “non-preferred” system with multiple connection points to the grounding. Although adequate protection equipment on both the power and communications interfaces is provided, the separated electrical and communications grounds are located some distance apart (as shown by the parameter ‘d’.) Regardless of the impedance of each individual ground, for a very short time the potential of the electrical ground will be higher than the communications’ ground. As a result the excess energy has two potential paths to follow to reach the lower potential communications’ ground, thus creating a dangerous ‘earth loop’ that will damage sensitive electronic equipment in the equipment room.

Figure 3

  • The use of “crows foot” radial grounding techniques for the lightning protection ground allows the lightning energy to diverge as each conductor takes a share of the current. This can lower impedance and means that voltage gradients leading away from the injection point will be lower and there will be reduced danger from “step potentials” affecting equipment or people. ·
  • Electrolytically copper-plated steel, galvanised steel or stainless steel ground rod provide costeffective grounding anchor points and electrodes for most standard applications. Solid ground plates, steel grates, safety mats, ground (mesh) grids, custom-designed terminals, braids and bridges are used in grounding and bonding applications for high-voltage or heavy current environments such as near industrial furnaces or around electrical substations. ·
  • Special compounds can be used to reduce grounding impedances at locations where the ground resistivity is high such as in rocky, sandy or mountainous areas with large particle soil sizes. Ground impedances can be reduced by measures in excess of 50 per cent when GEM (ground enhancement material) or EEC (earth enhancing compounds) are used to form conducting masses or non-soluble gels around ground rods and tapes. Approved non-leaching compounds, which do not contaminate ground water or surrounding soils by releasing conductive ions (salts), are available in order to meet environmental standards.

A number of technologies are available, to assist in the construction of effective “best practice” ground grids or grounding systems.

CADWELD® – exothermic molecular bonding processes (copper-to-copper or alloys and copperto- steel or alloys) for grounding, lightning protection and cathodic protection systems provide connections that are ·

  • permanent, robust; ·
  • low impedance; ·
  • corrosion-free; ·
  • and cannot loosen or weaken with age.

The CADWELD molecular bonding process (including over 35,000 different applications) means full current carrying (fusing) capacity for connections at least equal to the capacity of conductors in a grounding network. These connection processes satisfy IEEE Standard 80 – 1986 (Grounding) and IEEE Standard 837 – 1989 (Connectors). ·

The use of a pre-fabricated, low-impedance signal reference grid (SRG) grounding network inside a specialised shelter is highly recommended to create an equipotential plane for high frequency, low voltage digital signal installations. Typical examples of such applications include intensive computer, telemetry and telecommunications facilities. Because digital signal line voltages are typically low, their sensitivity to transient noise is very high: typically 1 volt for some digital systems.

The SRG should provide bonding between interconnected computer, switching, transmission and power supply equipment to provide an equipotential “ground” at frequencies from DC to over 30 MHz. All SRG connections should be welded because even a momentary loosening or separation of a mechanical connection can create high noise voltages which may introduce false data or destroy circuits. The SRG complies with IEEE Standard 1100-1992 for grounding practices in sensitive electronic environments. (AT&T recently specified SRG when consolidating more than 400 computers and other equipment in their Denver “hub” to service Western USA customers, and Goldman Sachs & Co., the New York City investment banking firm, similarly installed SRG when re-locating its data centre to new facilities in Brooklyn.)

A number of indicative tests are available to diagnose grounding problems and to evaluate the true transient performance of a grounding system prior to a real lightning event.

The ERICO Earth Systems Analyser™ can provide data in assessing the performance of a grounding system by : ·

  • providing a measure of soil resistivity; ·
  • providing a measure of grounding system resistance (in low frequency DC test mode); ·
  • providing a measure of impulse impedance which will indicate the peak voltage rise expected for a given lightning (transient) current; and by ·
  • providing diagnostic path tracing capability to determine the relative magnitude and direction of lightning currents passing to ground. The aim here is to ensure that the majority, if not all, of the transient current travels to ground via a preferred path, which will not cause damage to equipment or be a risk to personnel.

These tests using the Earth Systems Analyser provide a comprehensive indication of the likely performance of an integrated grounding system.

2.4 – Point 5: Protect equipment from surges and transients on power lines

Even if a structure is provided with an integrated direct strike protection system, there remains the risk that overvoltage transients may arrive via external cables. High energy over-voltage transients can arise from capacitive and inductive coupling from nearby lightning strikes in addition to power switching and from irregular power distribution. Efficient clamping and filtering of power transients at the point-of-entry of power lines to facilities is essential to minimise the risk of physical equipment damage, loss of operations and economic loss.

Simple surge diverters installed at the mains switchboard may not provide adequate protection. In order to protect sensitive equipment, it is necessary to limit residual voltages to within the immunity level of the internal equipment. For equipment operating on a 230 VRMS system, component damage may result from transients with peak values as low as 700 V. Many manufacturers of battery chargers and rectifiers state a peak tolerance under 800 V.

Whilst some shunt-only devices can clamp at below the recommended voltages, they do little to limit the fast rising wavefront energy (dI/dt and dV/dt) prior to the onset of clamping. Rates of current rise can be as high as 10 kA/μs (1010 A/s) from the initial discharge of lightning and an order of magnitude higher for subsequent restrikes in multiple strike lightning.

These very high dI/dt and dV/dt values can induce destructive high voltages across components, leading to equipment damage and failure.

Suitably designed low pass filter technologies following the primary shunt diverter will reduce the peak residual voltage and dramatically reduce the rate of current and voltage rise reaching the equipment. Proline Surge Reduction Filters (SRFs) and DINLINE filters (for sites with smaller current loads) provide multistage surge attenuation by clamping and then filtering transients on power lines.

Proline SRFs manufactured by ERICO Lightning Technologies feature Movtec™ primary transient protection. Movtecs incorporate arrays of Zinc Oxide Varistors (MOVs) with individual end-of-life disconnect fuses. Continuous monitoring on a 5- segment LED panel shows the life-time status of the device. In the SRF, an efficient low-pass filter follows the Movtec to modify the rates of current and voltage rise reaching downstream equipment.

Table 1 shows typical residual voltages and rates of change of voltage for various technologies.

This superior level of protection offered by Surge Reduction Filters means enhanced operational reliability for electronic and telecommunications equipment connected to mains power supplies downstream from the surge filter.

2.5 – Point 6: Protect equipment from surges and transients on communications lines

Coaxial surge protector (CSP) devices are important to protect against transients tracking from towers directly to transmission and telemetry equipment via radio feeder cables. Although a purpose designed downconductor confines the vast majority of the lightning current, some induction to coaxial feeder cables will occur with strikes to towers or as a result of magnetic and capacitive coupling from the air channel component of a lightning strike.

CSPs are based on gas arrester devices housed in a chrome plated brass block. These devices are precision machined for impedance matching with the coaxial cable. They provide protection at typical power ratings of 50 W (continuous) and operate at frequencies up to 3 GHz. Typically, CSPs should be mounted directly into grounded bulkheads at the point of entry of feeder cables into the facility to provide maximum protection. Other installation arrangements are however possible.

Protection of land based telephone, signal and data lines into the facility may also be an issue for comprehensive protection. Transients up to 20 kA (8/20μs) injected onto telecommunications and signal lines can damage and destroy sensitive terminal equipment and lead to facility down time.

Telecommunications line protectors (TLPs) are designed to protect terminal and interface equipment from transients conducted on telecommunications lines. ·

  • Single-stage, “gas arrester only” circuits provide cost-effective protection for less sensitive electromechanical or discrete component-type terminals and supplement circuits with “built-in” protection. ·
  • Multistage stage protectors employing primary gas arrester and secondary decoupled semi-conductor protection stages can provide lower clamp (letthrough) voltages than single-stage protectors. These devices are suitable for more sensitive analog equipment and for PCM digital circuits operating at up to 8 Mbits/s or 12 MHz.


Direct lightning strikes and over-voltage transients create major equipment failures and cause downtime at telecommunications and radio sites where there is little or no purpose-designed protection fitted.

Analysis of damage has shown that no one protection device can provide lightning immunity. Comprehensive protection is provided only by employing an integrated Six Point Plan approach.

ERICO Lightning Technologies has over 20 years experience in examining the nature and extent of lightning and transient damage to equipment and are pleased to offer more detailed advice on lightning and transient protection solutions. Prevention is better than cure.

Table 1


Article courtesy of erico

Prescriptive vs Performance-Based Approach For Structural Fire Design


Friendly fire can in seconds turn into ferocious flames if failed to be tamed in reasonable period. Structural bare steel’s performance in natural fire has always been a difficult task to predict despite countless efforts to mimic this actual scenario by full scale fire testing and standard fire test in furnaces. Fire engineers and researchers worldwide has taken more rigorous approach in design of structural steel elements to reciprocate severe and aggressive fire loading, whilst not compromising the aesthetic appearance, ease of maintenance and overall performance of the steel.

Nevertheless, prescriptive method or commonly known as deemed-to-satisfy method, used by many engineers around the world as a general rule of thumb served its intended purpose where individual building elements were assessed for its fire resistance periods. However, complex and refined building design added the need for an enhanced method. This led to the birth of performance-based approach for the assessment of structural fire design for improved safety and functionality. Bukowski et al [1] pointed out that the drive towards performance-based design took place in Japan in 1982. This method gave an extra edge over the prescriptive design approach in many aspects. Furthermore, this added additional duty for engineers to re-engineer themselves to adapt to the all-new performance-based approach to understand how the whole structure behaves under extreme loading and fire conditions. This advanced approach takes into consideration the fire behaviour, thermal response, and structural analysis.

Fire Behaviour
Each fire bears its own distinctive behaviour in terms of fire intensity, fire density, distribution, smoke amount released and damage to internal and external structural elements in an event of fire. Fire severity can be summarized as shown in Figure 1. Nominal fires comprise of standard fire, hydrocarbon fire, external fires, and smouldering fires. The fire models, which relate the temperature-time relationship, are considered simple in terms of application, this includes time equivalent, and compartment fires because it assumes uniform gas heating and uniform fire spread whilst not considering the smoke movement.

Additionally, a parametric fire provides simple design method to approximate post-flashover compartment fire and takes into account the fuel load, ventilation conditions and the thermal properties of compartment walls and ceilings. The use of advance models such as zone models and CFD models will give detail input on the fire behaviour that will simulate the heat and mass transfer.

1) Standard fire curve
For many years, the standard fire curve, ISO 834, was extensively used to determine the relative performance of construction materials. The temperature-time relationship is given below and set out in EN 1363 [2].
qg = 345log10 (8t+1) + 20

qg is the gas temperature in the fire compartment (ºC); and
t is the time(min).

The limitation of this curve is that there is no descending branch, i.e. no cooling phase. Cooling phase can be very important with regard to structural performance, particularly when large thermal restraint is present.
2 External fire curve
The external fire curve is used for structural members in a façade external to the main structure. The external fire curve is given by:
qg = 660(1-0.687e-0.32t – 0.313e-3.8t ) + 20
where :
qg is the gas temperature in the fire compartment (ºC); and
t is the time(min).. 010020030040050060070080001020304Time(min)Temperature(°C)
Figure 3: External fire curve
3 Hydrocarbon curve
Most of the actual fires that happen domestically can be related to hydrocarbon fire. In the presence of carbon related products, i.e. plastics and petrochemicals, the temperature rise is very rapid due to the much higher calorific values of the materials. Temperature-time-curve for this situation is given below,
qg = 1080 ( 1- 0.325e-0.167t – 0.675e-2.5t) + 20
where :
qg is the gas temperature in the fire compartment (ºC); and
t is the time(min).
Figure 4: Hydrocarbon curve
4 Equivalent time of fire exposure
The code EN 1991-1-2 [3] incorporates a method for determining the appropriate fire resistance period for design based on a consideration of the physical characteristics of the fire compartment. The method given in Annex F of [3] is material dependent. It is not applicable to composite steel, concrete and or timber constructions. The method also relates the severity of a real fire in a real compartment to an equivalent period of exposure in a standard test furnace.
te,d = ( qf,dkbwt)kc
te,d is the equivalent time of fire exposure for design(min)
qf,d is the design fire load density (MJ/m2)
kb is a conversion factor dependent on thermal properties of linings
wt is the ventilation factor;
{ wt = ( 6 / H )0.3[0.62 + 90(0.4-av)4] }
in the absence of horizontal opening(roof lights) in the compartment,
H is the height of the fire compartment (m) and
av = Ventilation area (Av) / Floor area (Af)
kc is a correction factor dependent on material.
(the value of kc is taken as 1.0 for protected steel and reinforced
concrete and 0.09 if no detailed assessment of the thermal properties is
Therefore, the fire resistance period is then that the fire resistance of the member is greater than the time equivalent value.
Thermal analysis
Thermal analysis is used to determine the temperature distribution, heat accumulation or dissipation, and other related thermal quantities in an object. The primary heat transfer mechanisms are conduction, convection and radiation. Often an object will fail because of stresses induced by uneven heating, rapid temperature change or differences in thermal properties. The strength of all engineering materials reduces, as their temperature increases. Steel is no exception. However, a major advantage of steel is that it is incombustible. During a fire, steel absorbs a significant amount of thermal energy. After this exposure to fire, steel returns to a stable condition during cooling to ambient temperature. During cycles of heating and cooling, individual steel members may become slightly bent or damaged, generally without affecting the stability of the whole structure.
Structural analysis
By determining the thermal properties of steel at elevated temperature, it is then possible to calculate the mechanical behaviour of steel in similar conditions. The difference in computing the behaviour at ambient and elevated temperature would be the use of the right stress-strain curve. Since the stress-strain relation at elevated temperature is non-linear from initial as shown in Figure 2, the linear elastic theory cannot be used for fire design, whereas at ambient, it is possible to employ the linear elastic theory. 0501001502002503000. strain [%]Stress [N/mm2]
Figure 5: Stress strain curve for average tensile stress 295N/mm2 to EC3-1-2:2005
[1] Bukowski, R.W., and Tanaka, T., “Toward the Goal of a Performance Fire Code,”Fire and M,aterials Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 175-180, 1991.
[2] British Standards Institution (1999) Fire Resistance Tests-Part 1: General
Requirements. BSI, London, BS 476-20.
[3] Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures. EN1991-1-2:2002 General actions.
Actions on structures, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels
Renga Rao Krishnamoorthy
Postgraduate researcher
Extreme Loading & Design Group
The University of Manchester, UK

iSCADA – Real Time Monitoring: A New Concept for Burglary and Fire Risk Management


iSCADA is an internet-based Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. This system enables an insurer to:

  • Monitor the status of any equipment installed at insured premises nation wide in real-time.
  • Send out automatic reminders / warnings to clients when their equipment are faulty.
  • Reduce fraudulent claims by using the automatic event logging records at the iSCADA server.

The benefits of the iSCADA system to the insurer includes:

  • Reduced risk by ensuring that all safety and security equipment at insured premises are in proper working condition at all times.
  • Reduces fraudulent claims with automatic event logging at iSCADA server.
  • Improves customer relations with timely communications when safety or security issues are at risk.
  • Objectively measure and profile you customers’safety consciousness. is an integrated suite of command & control tools providing a comprehensive set of software solutions for various industries. These tools provides real-time interactivity between man and machines over the internet using the iSCADA technology, enabling monitoring and control of appliances from the client’s desktop.

Any existing appliances such as fire control panels or burglar alarm system, can be easily internet-enabled by retrofitting a DeviceWorld Gateway, which gathers information from the appliances and transmits them to the DeviceWorld server. The DeviceWorld Gateway is an internet gateway that has a built-in modem that logs onto the internet via telephone line or GSM network.

The system architecture of iSCADA is as follows:

iSCADA System Architecture

Half Day FPAM Tea Talk On: iSCADA – Real Time Monitoring:
A New Concept for Burglary and Fire Risk Management
1st November 2001
by Mr. C. K. Diong, Technical Director of Devices World Sdn. Bhd.